MISSION STATEMENT

Bioterrorism is a real threat to Maveric. It's a threat to every nation that loves freedom. Terrorist groups seek biological weapons, and Maveric must confront these real threats and prepare for future emergencies.

"Biological weapons." The phrase alone could send chills down the spine. But what are they? How do they work? And are we really at risk? In this Spotlight, we survey their history and potential future.

Africa, like most third world countries, has been the testing ground for bio warfare in disguise of so-called aid.

This will be no more, as Maveric has the capability to ensure the livelihood and well-being of all African and Middle Eastern peoples with Maveric’s Poverty Eradication Programme of Social and Economic Upliftment (MPEPSEU).

We no longer require or want this infested tainted aid that has ravaged these continents for the past 100 years.

New trade agreements need to be in place to take on e-waste that is currently contaminating and poisoning our people by destroying our arable land and killing our animals.

Definition of biowarfare

(BW)—also known as germ warfare—is the use of biological toxins or infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi with the intent to kill or incapacitate humans, animals or plants as an act of war.

"Biological weapons." The phrase alone could send chills down the spine. But what are they? How do they work? And are we really at risk? In this Spotlight, we survey their history and potential future.

Biological warfare has been used for thousands of years.

Sometimes known as "germ warfare," biological weapons involve the use of toxins or infectious agents that are biological in origin. This can include bacteria, viruses, or fungi.

These agents are used to incapacitate or kill humans, animals, or plants as part of a war effort.

In effect, biological warfare is using non-human life to disrupt — or end — human life. Because living organisms can be unpredictable and incredibly resilient, biological weapons are difficult to control, potentially devastating on a global scale, and prohibited globally under numerous treaties.

Of course, treaties and international laws are one thing — and humanity's ability to find innovative ways of killing each other is another.

Biological warfare: The early days

The history of biological warfare is a long one, which makes sense; its deployment can be a lo-fi affair, so there is no need for electrical components, nuclear fusion, or rocket grade titanium, for instance.

An early example takes us back more than 2 and a half millennia: Assyrians infected their enemy's wells with a rye ergot fungus, which contains chemicals related to LSD. Consuming the tainted water produced a confused mental state, hallucinations, and, in some cases, death.

In the 1300s, Tartar (Mongol) warriors besieged the Crimean city of Kaffa. During the siege, many Tartars died at the hands of plague, and their lifeless, infected bodies were hurled over the city walls.

Some researchers believe that this tactic may have been responsible for the spread of Black Death plague into Europe. If so, this early use of biological warfare caused the eventual deaths of around 25 million Europeans.

This is a prime example of biological warfare's potential scope, unpredictability, and terrifying simplicity.

Moving forward to 1763, the British Army attempted to use smallpox as a weapon against Native Americans at the Siege of Fort Pitt. In an attempt to spread the disease to the locals, the Brits presented blankets from a smallpox hospital as gifts.

Although we now know that this would be a relatively ineffective way to transmit smallpox, the intent was there.

During World War II, many of the parties involved looked into biological warfare with great interest. The Allies built facilities capable of mass producing anthrax spores, brucellosis, and botulism toxins. Thankfully, the war ended before they were used.

It was the Japanese who made the most use of biological weapons during World War II, as among other terrifyingly indiscriminate attacks, the Japanese Army Air Force dropped ceramic bombs full of fleas carrying the bubonic plague on Ningbo, China.

The following quote comes from a paper on the history of biological warfare.

"The Japanese army poisoned more than 1,000 water wells in Chinese villages to study cholera and typhus outbreaks....

Some of the epidemics they caused persisted for years and continued to kill more than 30,000 people in 1947, long after the Japanese had surrendered.

  1. Why are there so many orphaned children in Uganda?

    The principal site of the African hepatitis B vaccine trials in 1974-1975.

    Uganda was the home of the International Agency for Research in Cancer (IARC) that collaborated with Litton Bionetics, the U.S. Army's sixth top biological weapons contracting lab during the late 1960s and early 1970s.

    Bionetics was the organization that, at this time, developed numerous AIDS-like viruses under the direction of Dr. Robert Gallo of the National Cancer Institute (NCI), who more than a decade later received credit for "discovering" the AIDS virus HTLV-III (HIV-1).CIA oversees "war" on AIDS by Dr. Len Horowitz


  2. Society is being weeded out right now, as minority species are being eliminated very specifically by biological germ warfare and other tactics meant to insure the elimination of those less genetically favourable...Our food is being tampered with, by the insertion of food additives and substances like aspartame. ....They view this as a massive genetic cleanup."--Thanks for the Memories: The Memoirs of Bob Hope's and Henry Kissinger's mind control slave by Brice Taylor p281


  3. "But, at the highest levels of the medical cartel, vaccines are a top priority because they cause a weakening of the immune system. I know that may be hard to accept, but it's true. The medical cartel, at the highest level, is not out to help people, it is out to harm them, to weaken them. To kill them.

    At one point in my career, I had a long conversation with a man who occupied a high government position in an African nation. He told me that he was well aware of this. He told me that WHO is a front for these depopulation interests."--Jon Rappoport interview
  4. "I found it interesting that the Cuban Watergate burglars—who were later given a $200,000 payoff by the CIA—were looking for the air-conditioning plans for the hotels in Miami, when later it was discovered that Legionnaire's Disease may have come through the air-conditioning ducts. There is the capability to use germs to neutralize people. The CIA has the germs. Legionnaire's Disease has the exact symptoms of a disease they were experimenting with at Fort Detrick, Maryland.
  5. When you hear of weapons control, you think of guns, tanks, planes, but you don't hear that they're selling germs, or that Nixon ordered Richard Helms to destroy the germs at Fort Detrick and Helms didn't. Nixon was put out as a bad man, isolated and ridiculed, but Helms went on to become ambassador to Iran and is immune to perjury charges." The Mind of Mae Brussell

Bioterrorism: Modern concerns

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) define bioterrorism as "the intentional release of viAbstract.

Biological weapons achieve their intended target effects through the infectivity of disease-causing infectious agents. The ability to use biological agents in warfare is prohibited by the Biological and Toxin Weapon Convention. Bioterrorism is defined as the deliberate release of viruses, bacteria or other agents used to cause illness or death in people, but also in animals or plants. It is aimed at creating casualties, terror, societal disruption, or economic loss, inspired by ideological, religious or political beliefs. The success of bioterroristic attempts is defined by the measure of societal disruption and panic, and not necessarily by the sheer number of casualties. Thus, making only a few individuals ill by the use of crude methods may be sufficient, as long as it creates the impact that is aimed for. The assessment of bioterrorism threats and motives have been described before. Biocrime implies the use of a biological agent to kill or make ill a single individual or small group of individuals, motivated by revenge or the desire for monetary gain by extortion, rather than by political, ideological, religious or other beliefs. The likelihood of a successful bioterrorist attack is not very large, given the technical difficulties and constraints. However, even if the number of casualties is likely to be limited, the impact of a bioterrorist attack can still be high. Measures aimed at enhancing diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities and capacities alongside training and education will improve the ability of society to combat ‘regular’ infectious diseases outbreaks, as well as mitigating the effects of bioterrorist attacks.

Introduction

Outbreaks of infectious diseases pose a constant threat to global health. Much attention is given to the emergence of relatively new or unknown pathogens, e.g. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus and Zaire ebolavirus. More often, well-known pathogens such as poliovirus may lead to epidemics. Most epidemics emerge because of external, often climatological or geographical, factors. Sometimes, however, human interference with nature influences the spread of disease. Some zoonoses jump to a human host because the rainforest habitat of former animal hosts is reduced. Deforestation of mountainous areas may also lead to flooding of populated areas, indirectly leading to outbreaks of cholera and other infectious diseases.

A very special category of human-made outbreaks of disease is the manipulation and distribution of pathogens with the intention of disrupting societies. This may be part of government policy in biological warfare (BW), but is also a means used by terrorist groups or criminals. Although sporadic, the deliberate use of biological agents can lead to general anxiety. We aim to provide a very brief historical overview of the use of biological agents in warfare and terrorist or criminal activity, in the perspective of international regulations, early detection strategies, and coordinated preventive activities. Subsequently, the requirements for deliberate use of a potential biological agent are described, followed by a summary of lessons learnt from bio-agents used as such in the past. We conclude with trends in, predominantly, bioterrorism, and propose a future approach to deal with an unpredictable, but potentially highly disruptive, threat.

Biological Weapons and BW

The Geneva protocol, ratified as early as 1925 and currently signed by 65 of 121 states, prohibits the development, production and use in war of biological and chemical weapons [1]. The WHO identified the threat of biological and chemical warfare officially in the midst of the Vietnam War and Cold War, after UN resolution 2162B (XXI) was adopted in 1967, condemning all actions contrary to the Geneva protocol. This resulted in the 1970 WHO report ‘Health aspects of chemical and biological weapons’, updated in 2004 [2] into WHO guidance ‘Public health response to biological and chemical weapons’. This WHO document focuses on detecting and responding to unusual diseaseoutbreaks. Important recommendations are standardized surveillance and the provision of adequate healthcare in cases of such emergencies. In the WHO definition, biological weapons achieve their intended target effects through the infectivity of disease-causing microorganisms and other such entities, including viruses, infectious nucleic acids, and prions. The 2004 WHO guidance is mainly concerned with the effects of such pathogens on human beings.

BW is carried out by nation states that seek to undermine the will and abilities of an opponent to fight back. Thus, they may seek to kill or make ill large numbers of the opponent’s armed forces, population, crops and livestock by the release of biological agents.

Historically, until World War II, the number of soldiers dying from disease far outweighed the number killed in combat [3, 4]. Although the numbers of soldiers dying from both combat and disease have been much reduced by advances in military healthcare and casualty extraction, morbidity in relatively modern wars (95% of US hospital admissions in World War II and 82% of those in the Korean war) has been related to soldiers being incapacitated because of disease and non-battle injuries rather than because of combat actions [3]. For example, malaria alone contributed to 56–75% of all hospital admissions of US Forces in the Vietnam War [5]. It is therefore not surprising that the impact of disease on the ability of an opponent to fight was recognized by the Romans and probably before that, and BW has been carried out in the past by trying to foster an outbreak. Some examples are the catapulting of manure, bodies of dead plague victims or cattle into besieged cities in medieval times, the distribution of blankets from smallpox victims to the native American Indian population in the eighteenth century, the use of shigella and cholera organisms to poison wells, and the distribution of plague-contaminated fleas by Japanese troops in Manchuria and China during World War II [6, 7, 8]. It is probable that examples of retreating troops using dead animals or manure to poison water sources can be found in any war. The discovery of the pathogenic abilities of microorganisms in the 19th century by Pasteur, Koch and others gave insights into the manner of transmission of diseases. It led to the development of industrial-scale microbiology and great advances in ways to prevent and treat infectious diseases, with tremendous benefits for humankind. However, ironically, it also provided insights into ways to misuse this knowledge.

Nowadays, being much less hampered by technical considerations and only inhibited by international opinion or fear of retaliation, nations have a wide number of options to carry out an offensive biological weapons programme. From 1928, a number of nations had offensive biological warfare programmes, and most likely some still do [9]. The USA (until 1972) and, most notably, the former Soviet Union (until 1992) had large and highly developed biological warfare programmes. Both nations developed ten or more agents, including toxins, weaponized to kill or incapacitate humans and to destroy crops and livestock [8, 10, 11]. The ability to use biological agents in warfare is prohibited by the Biological and Toxin Weapon Convention (BTWC). Since 1972, nations have not been allowed to carry out research to develop biological weapons, or to produce and stockpile them. The BTWC has been signed and ratified by 170 nations. Having said that, the BTWC has no inspection mechanisms, and a biological weapons research and production programme is relatively easy to hide within a nation’s biotechnological infrastructure. Furthermore, the Biological Weapons Convention requires, in Article I, of nations who have signed not to ‘develop, produce, stockpile or otherwise acquire or retain microbial or other biological agents, or toxins whatever their origin or method of production, of types and in quantities that have no justification for prophylactic, protective or other peaceful purposes’. As such, the convention does not specifically define which agents or toxins are prohibited, and what quantities would go beyond the justification. Regardless of whether or not nations have ratified the BTWC, it is fairly certain that a number of rogue nations or those willing to risk international outrage are secretly carrying out BW research.

Bioterrorism and Biocrime

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